What do university patent routes indicate at regional level?


We estimate the determinants of university patents by route in Spain. National patents are an
indicator of R&D efforts when we focus on the region, but not of how regions organize their
university or joint research structure. International patents are a stronger indicator of R&D efforts,
so they express confidence in the potential of the patent. Neither set is an indicator of proximity to
the region?s competencies in technologies other than for production-intensive sectors, so they will
not always foster regional technology transfer. Since the driving forces of national and
international patents differ, the use of both is recommended.