Embracing the Complexity of Policy Processes in Sanitation: Insights from India

Andrés Hueso, Alejandra Boni, Álvaro Fernández-Baldor
Development Policy Review

Different stakeholders tried participatory approaches to boost progress in rural sanitation in India. The policy processes around these experiences, despite shaping their outcomes, remain a knowledge gap this paper addresses. Evidence show that the interests of the actors involved resulted in the national campaign being construction-focused. Therefore, participatory approaches could only be successfully introduced through networks with political champions at their centre. Moreover, political dynamics determined the success of the different introduction strategies. A better understanding of these policy processes, using analytical frameworks such as the one we propose, will lead to smarter influencing strategies in the sanitation sector.